What is a CPU and how does it work in 2022?

CPU is an important part of the computer which is also called processor, microprocessor, and simply CPU. The CPU handles the data and instructions received from all the hardware, software, users, and input devices connected to the computer, processes them, and gives results. It also runs the operating system and other programs. This is the brain of the computer.

Do you know what this CPU is? Why is it also called the brain of the computer? There are many such questions that often bother many people. Just as our brain controls all our processes in our body, in the same way, in a computer, the CPU controls all the processes happening inside and outside it, especially that is why the CPU is also called the brain of the computer.

It handles all the instructions given by the user, and it is up to the capacity of the CPU how quickly and according to what it processes those instructions. The faster it can do this, the better or more efficient it is called CPU. Let’s take some information about the CPU.

Every 6 months you will see CPUs with new processors in the market. It is also difficult for new users, from which processor they should choose if they are buying a new system. Because according to your work your requirement is there.

That’s why today I thought why not provide you people with the right information about what is Central Processing Unit is and how it works so that it will be easy for you to choose the right CPU. Then without delay let’s start and know about what is CPU in Hindi.

What is CPU

Do you know what is the full name of the CPU? The full form of CPU is Central Processing Unit. It is a small piece of hardware that processes all the instructions of a computer program. It handles all the important tasks of the computer system such as arithmetical, logic, and input/output operations.

CPUs are made in such a way that microscopic transistors in the number of billions can be placed in a single computer chip. All the calculations are done with the help of these transistors which are needed to run the programs which are stored in the memory of the system.

The CPU is also called the brain of the computer because – all the instruction, no matter how simple it is, all have to go through the CPU itself. For example, if you type an alphabet such as L, then it appears on the screen. The CPU has a hand in making it appear on the screen.

For this reason, the CPU is also referred to as a central processor unit, and in short, it is called a processor. Therefore, when you are looking at the technical specification of a device in an electronic store, then the processor specification that is there is the CPU.

What is a CPU and how does it work in 2022

When we discuss about different types of CPUs, then by this we mean their speed. Like how quickly he completes all the functions. We only need speed in doing our work, the sooner our work is processed, the sooner we can do any new work easily.

As our instructions become complex such as 3D animation, editing of video files, etc., we need a better CPU. Therefore, speed has been the most important reason behind all the technological advances that have taken place in processor technology.

We know CPU by many names such as processor, central processor, or microprocessor, etc. Whatever instructions it receives from its software and hardware, no matter how small it is, it processes them. Therefore it is a very important part of the computer.

In whatever advancements happen in CPU technology, one thing is given more importance, and that is how the transistors can be made smaller and smaller. This is because with this, those CPUs can be made more efficient and their speed can be increased manifold.

For the first time, a scientist named Moore had said about this thing. That’s why this thing is also called Moore’s Law.

CPU Functions

So let’s know about some important features of the Central Processing Unit (CPU).

  • CPU is considered to be the brain of the computer.
  • CPU performs all types of data processing operations.
  • It stores data, intermediate results, and instructions (program).
  • With this, it controls almost all the operations of all the parts of the computer.

How CPU works

You need to know what the CPU does. Although we already know that the work that the CPU does is very important, now we will know how this CPU works. Since the origin of the CPU, many such improvements have been made in it over the years.

Despite so many improvements, the basic function of the CPU is still the same. Its basic functions are fetching, decoding, and executing. Let us know about them in detail.


As the word suggests, instruction is received in it. This instruction means the series of numbers that are passed from RAM to CPU. Each instruction is a small part of an operation, so the CPU must know which instruction is coming next. The current instruction address is kept by the program counter (PC).

Then the PC and instructions are placed in the Instruction Register (IR). After that, the PC length is increased so that it can be referenced on the next instruction’s address.


Once the instruction has been fetched and stored in the IR, the CPU then passes that instruction to a circuit called the instruction decoder. It then converts that instruction into signals which are then passed on for further action by parts of other CPUs.


This is the last step, in which the decoded instructions are sent to the relevant parts of the CPU for completion. The results are then often written into the CPU register, where they can be referenced later by instructions. Here you can understand them as the memory function of your calculator.

Information About the Parts of The CPU

Here you will know what are the components of the CPU and what work they do. By the way, there are three main components of the CPU.

  • Memory or Storage Unit
  • Control Unit
  • ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

Memory or Storage Unit

These units store the system’s instructions, data, and intermediate results. These units also provide information to all other units when needed. It is also called internal storage unit or main memory or primary storage or Random Access Memory (RAM).

Its size affects its speed, power, and capability. Primary memory and secondary memory are two such memories that are present in the computer.

What are the Functions of the Memory Unit

  • It stores all the data and instructions needed for processing.
  • All these stores the intermediate results of processing.
  • It is stored to store the final results of processing when they have not been released in the output device even then in the output device.
  • All inputs and outputs are transmitted through the main memory.

Control Unit

These units control the operations of all parts of the computer but they do not perform any actual data processing operations.

What are the Functions of the Control Unit

  • It comes in handy to control the transfers of data and instructions that are used to transfer to other units of the computer.
  • This is done to manage and coordinate all the units of the computer.
  • It receives instructions from memory, interprets them, and is used to direct those operations to the computer.
  • It communicates with Input/Output devices for data transfer and for results from storage.
  • It does not process anything nor does it store any data.

ALU (Arithmetic Logic Unit)

This unit has two subsections called keys,

  • Arithmetic Section
  • Logic Section

Arithmetic Section

The function of this arithmetic section is that it performs all arithmetic operations such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division. All complex operations are performed by using the above mentioned operations repetitively.

Logic Section

The main function of this logic section is that all these logic operations perform such as comparing, selecting, matching, and merging data.

Type of CPU

As we know that computer CPU (which is called Central Processing Unit in short) is a very vital component that handles all the instructions and calculations which are sent to it from other computer components and peripherals. The speed at which software programs work also depends on the CPU, and how powerful they are.

What is a CPU and how does it work in 2022

That’s why it is important that you choose the right CPU so that it can handle all the tasks as per the requirement. Right now the two largest leading CPU manufacturers in the whole world are Intel and AMD, which have their own types of CPUs.

Single Core CPUs

Single core CPUs are available in the oldest type of computer CPU and first of all these types of CPUs were used.

In single-core CPUs, only one operation can be done at a time, so they are not the right option for multi-tasking. Whenever the user wants to run more than one application, then their performance gets reduced very quickly.

If you want to run any other application, then you will have to wait till the first one is finished. Otherwise, the first operation will be very slow. In these types of CPUs, the performance of the computer mostly depends on the clock speeds and which is also a measurement of power.

Dual Core CPUs

A dual-core CPU is a single CPU but it has two cores and hence it functions like two CPUs.

Whereas in single-core CPUs the processor has to switch back and forth in different sets of data streams if more operation is to be done, while dual-core CPUs can handle multitasking very comfortably and that too efficiently.

To take maximum advantage of Dual Core, it is very important to have a special code written in both the operating system and the programs that are running in it, which is called SMT (simultaneous multi-threading technology). Dual-core CPUs are faster than single-core but not like quad-core CPUs.

Quad Core CPUs

Quad Core CPUs are a further refinement of the multi-core CPU design and feature four cores in a single CPU. As in dual-core CPUs, the workload is split within two cores, similarly in quad cores even more large multitasking tasks can be done. This does not mean that a single operation will be up to four times faster.

This is possible only by having an SMT code. The speed is not very noticeable in these CPUs. But yes, if the users have to do any heavy tasks like video editing, games, and animations together, then these CPUs are going to be useful for them.

How important are CPUs?

As I have already said how important is the CPU for a computer. Since it is also called the brain of the computer, you must have understood how important it is.

Since it is solely responsible for executing commands within the program, the higher the capacity of the CPU, the more quickly it can run its applications.

What are CPU Cores and how many cores are there in the CPU?

Talking about the computing of earlier times, earlier there used to be a single core in the CPU. This means that CPUs were limited to only a single set of tasks.

Due to this particular reason, the speed of computing was very low in earlier computers and they used to take more time to work.

Also See: What is RAM, and what are its Types Read More

But over time, due to the requirement for more computing power, the manufacturers had to rely on new methods to increase performance. And while improving this performance, multi-core processors were born. We are hearing about dual, quad, and octo-core CPUs nowadays.

Dual Core Processor: A dual-core processor consists of two separate CPUs in a single chip. By increasing the number of cores, CPUs are able to handle multiple processes simultaneously.

With this, the manufacturers get a CPU with more performance and less processing time according to their requirements.

With the advent of dual-core, they are further helpful in developing quad-core processors which have four CPUs. Likewise octa-core processors too.

What is Hyper-Threading?

Some CPUs generate the capacity for more cores by virtualizing their common physical core. This process is called Hyper-Threading. For example, using a single core and virtualizing it like dual cores. Due to this, work of dual cores can be done despite having a single core.

Virtualizing means that a CPU has only one core but starts functioning as a dual-core. Here additional cores mean having separate threads. But here it should be known that the physical core performs much better than virtual cores.

What is Multithreading?

Here the thread has been considered the core. Suppose you can consider a single thread as a single piece of a computer process. Whereas Multithreading means processing more threads simultaneously.

Meaning that in a single CPU, more instructions are understood and processed at the same time. With this, the CPU core can process more work simultaneously at the same time. Due to this, the computing speed increases a lot.

Intel Core i3 vs. i5 vs. i7

Let us know about the different CPUs of Intel. How do these processors work? You must be thinking that Intel’s i7 processor performs better than i5 and i3. And this is true too. Because i7 is better than i5 and i5 is better than i3.

But do you know why these processors are different from each other and are different from each other in terms of performance? But it is easy to understand, let’s know about it.

Intel Core i3 processors are dual-core processors, while i5 and i7 processors are quad-core.

Due to features like Turbo Boost, i5 and i7 chips work better. This turbo boost enables the processor to increase its clock speed to higher than the base speed, ie from 3.0 GHz to 3.5 GHz, whenever they need it. But Intel Core i3 chips do not have these features.

Those processor models that have “K” written in the end can be easily overclocked, which means that additional clock speed can be forced and it can be utilized at the time of need.

Hyper-Threading, as I have already mentioned about it, it enables two threads to process simultaneously in each CPU core. This means that four simultaneous threads (as they are dual-core processors) can be processed simultaneously in i3 processors which support Hyper-Threading.

While Intel Core i5 processors do not support Hyper-Threading, this means that they can also work with four threads at the same time. Whereas i7 processors support this technology (as it is quad-core) so they can process 8 threads at a time.

Because due to power constraints in many devices that do not have a continuous supply of power, all processors whether it is i3, i5, or i7 have to balance their performance and power consumption.

How is the CPU visible and where is it located?

A modern CPU is usually small and square in shape, with many short, rounded, metallic connectors on the bottom. But some older CPUs have pins in place of metallic connectors.

CPUs attach directly to the CPU “socket” (or sometimes a “slot”) that is located on the motherboard. The CPU is inserted into the socket pin-side-down, and a small lever helps to secure that processor.

Since the CPU has to do many processes simultaneously, these modern CPUs become hot most of the time due to running for some time. Therefore, to remove this heat, it is necessary to attach a heat sink and a fan directly to the top of the CPU. Usually, it comes bundled with the CPU which you must buy.

Talking about other advanced cooling options, you can use water cooling kits. While installing these CPUs, take special care of them because their pins are very sophisticated.

What is CPU Clock Speed?

The clock speed of any processor is called the number of instructions a processor can process in a second. It is measured in gigahertz (GHz).

For example, if the clock speed of a CPU is 1 Hz then it means that it processes only one instruction in a second. Whereas if the clock speed of a CPU is 3.0 GHz then it can process 3 billion instructions in a second.

What are the Advantages of CPU

By the way, there are many advantages of CPU in a computer. But here we will talk about only a few advantages.

Fast Calculation of Mathematical Data

The primary advantage of a Computer Processor or CPU is that with this you can fast calculate mathematical data. This is a very important reason why computers are ahead of humans in some tasks, for example, mathematical modeling.

On the basis of this fast calculation of mathematical data, many tasks can be done on the computer such as video games, photo editing, etc.

A Dynamic Circuit

A modern computer processor is basically a dynamic circuit. It contains millions of tiny switches called transistors. The other components of the processor control the configuration of these tiny switches according to their input data or from the active application.

These tiny switches produce large and complex dynamic circuits, such as those in a printed circuit board (PCB) in electronics. Similarly, a computer can emulate the function of other electronics.

Basic Computer Functionality

A primary basis of any computer is a processor. All other hardware components are made according to the processor itself. Without this, the rest of the hardware and software of the computer is absolutely pointless.

All input and output peripherals completely depend on the processor itself for the input and output of data. Because only through this processor the input data is processed and reach the output. This processor is where the computer computes anything.

Definition of CPU

In all the computers that you can see in your office, you have a very important thing which is called Central Processing Unit, or CPU. This CPU processes all kinds of arithmetic and logical decisions, too at the speed of billions of operations per second.

Almost all the components of the computer serve the CPU and fetch data, store it and finally display the results on the screen. So let’s take a look at some of its functions.


A CPU does all the basic arithmetic such as addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division at very high speeds. Since there is the simple arithmetic of long chains in complex math functions, your computer can also do this trigonometry, logarithms, and other tough math problems fast.

For example, the CPU of your computer can calculate hundreds of spreadsheet cells in a fraction of a second.


The CPU makes many logic decisions based on simple comparisons, such as greater-than condition, less-than condition, and equal-to condition. Then CPU takes its action according to the outcome of the comparison.

Moving Data

CPU spends a lot of its time in moving data from one place to another. For example, to read a file from a hard drive, do some calculations in the data, and later write it to another file.


The CPU can “multitasks” very easily, for this it has to be switched to different types of programs. And work has to be done according to the priority. This makes full use of CPU memory. Due to multitasking, many tasks can be run simultaneously without closing any task.

Future of CPU

As advancement in technology is happening. Similarly, there will be many such advancements in the CPU such as the use of superconductor graphene in place of silicon or in combination with it.

Each year the size of the CPU is gradually decreasing. As the latest generation, Intel architecture has been manufactured in 22 nanometers (nm = 1 billionth of a meter). It is being heard that the next-generation CPU is going to be even less at only 14nm.

By making it smaller, the power consumption can also be lowered and extra cores can also be added to the CPU, thereby keeping Moore’s law intact.

Slowly this size seems to be decreasing continuously. But no matter how small it becomes, but it will be bigger than the size of the atom of Silicon because it cannot be smaller than that. Then it is indicating that soon something new can be used in place of Silicon.

Maybe that thing is graphene? Because it is of very small size. Extremely thin, one of the thinnest known materials. With this, these scientists will definitely help in reducing the size of the CPU. IBM has reported that they have developed a graphene “transistor” that can also operate at 300GHz.

The way technology is being used, it is clear that the use of Graphene CPUs can be seen very soon in the CPU industry. Only time will tell what changes are going to come in the CPU ahead.

What is the full form of CPU?

The full form of CPU is Central Processing Unit. If you translate it into Hindi then it is “Central Processing Unit“.

What is a CPU called in Hindi?

CPU is called Central Operating System or Central Processing Unit in Hindi.

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